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Cisplatin, cisplatinum, or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) a well-known chemotherapeutic drug. It has been used for treatment of numerous human cancers including testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, brain tumors and neuroblastoma. It is given intravenous. It is effective against various types of cancers, including carcinomas, germ cell tumors, lymphomas, and sarcomas. This compound is used as chemotherapeutic agent to inhibit otherwise rapid division of tumor cells (i.e., Proliferation). Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs designed to inhibit growth of rapidly dividing cancer cells in the body. The exact action of this complex is not known. Since the trans-isomer is inactive, therefore chelation or at least co-ordination to donor atoms at cis-positions (i.e., in close proximity) is an essential part of the activity. Its mode of action has been linked to its ability to crosslink with the guanine base on the DNA; interfering with DNA repair mechanisms, causing DNA damage, and subsequently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. However, because of drug resistance and numerous undesirable side effects such as severe kidney problems, allergic reactions, decrease immunity to infections, gastrointestinal disorders, hemorrhage, and hearing loss especially in younger patients, other platinum- containing anti-cancer drugs such as Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin and others, have also been used. Furthermore, combination therapies of cisplatin with other drugs have been highly considered to overcome drug-resistance and reduce toxicity. This comprehensive article highlights the physicochemical properties of cisplatin and related platinum-based drugs, and discusses its uses for the treatment of different human cancers. A special attention is given to clinical uses, and its side effects.
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